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CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY OF SRI LANKA
AVIATION SAFETY NOTICE
Ref No: PEL/2011/02 File Ref: PL/18/50/2 : 1. Holders of Personnel Licences issued by DGCA 2. Holders of a Licence issued by DGCA Sri Lanka for Air 3. Air Navigation Service Providers.
4. Designated Aviation Medical Examiners.
: Personnel Licensing Requirements– Definitions and
: Replacement of ASN No 054 issue no 05 issued on 30th 05. Effective date : 01 February 2012 : Until Further Notice 07.Contact person : For more Details/ Clarifications about this ASN please contact Deputy Director (Personnel Licensing), Civil Aviation Authority, No.4, Hunupitiya Road, Colombo 02, Sri Lanka. Telephone: +94112358925, Fax : +94112304691, E mail ddpel@caa.lk : A copy of this document is available on web site- www.caa.lk and the technical library of Civil Aviation
Authority. Copies can be collected at reproduction cost from the library.
: 1. Holders and applicants for Personnel Licences.
2. Holders or applicants for a Licence for Air 3. Air Navigation Service Providers.
4. Designated Aviation Medical Examiners.
: Comments (if any) on the contents of this Aviation Safety Notice (ASN) may be forwarded to the contact person.
However the Aviation Safety Notice will come into effect on the date shown therein notwithstanding any objection or comment made by any person or party unless and until an amendment to the Aviation Safety Notice is issued afresh by the Director General of Civil Aviation.
: Definitions and General Rules related to Personnel Licensing Requirements are published hereby as an attachment to this ASN.
12.Histroy of Revision : To include provisions of amendment 170 of ICAO Annex 1 : ASN 028, 042, 045, 054, 055, 056, 057, 058, 059, 085 and 14.Action Required : For compliance by 1. Holders of Personnel Licences 2. Holders of a Licence for Air Transport Operation 3. Air Navigation Services Providers 4. Designated Aviation Medical Examiners : List of current ASN numbers are as follows.
Replaced ASN no 002 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 008 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 017 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 023 issue no 01 and Replaced ASN no 003 Replaced ASN no 001 and Replaced ASN no 025 issue no 002 Replaced ASN no 028 issue no 01 Ref No. PEL/2011/02 Page 2 of 4 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Replaced ASN no 006 Replaced ASN no 033 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 036 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 038 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 039 issue no 03 Replaced ASN no 042 issue no 06 and Replaced ASN no 050 Amendment to ASN no 013 Replaced ASN no 044 issue no 02 Replaced ASN no 045 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 046 issue no 02 Replaced ASN no 047 issue no 03 Replaced ASN no 048 issue no 02 Replaced ASN no 049 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 051 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 052 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 053 issue no 04 and Replaced ASN no 054 issue no 05 Replaced ASN no 055 issue no 04 Replaced ASN no 056 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 057 issue no 03 Replaced ASN no 058 issue no 02 Replaced ASN no 059 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 060 issue no 02 Replaced Page no 01 of the attachment to the ASN no 061 issue no 01 Replaced ASN no 077 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 079 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 080 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 081 issue No. 04 Replaced ASN no 083 issue No.o1 Replaced ASN no 086 issue No. 02 Replaced ASN no 090 issue No. 03 Replaced ASN no 091 issue No. 03 Ref No. PEL/2011/02 Page 3 of 4 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Replaced ASN no 093 implementing standards S.N:IS-003 Replaced ASN no 097 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 099 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 100 issue No. 03 Replaced ASN no 108 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 111 issue No. 01 Replaced ASN no 112 issue No. 02 Director General of Civil Aviation and Chief Executive Officer Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka No. 4, Hunupitiya Road, Telephone: +94 11 2304706, +94 11 2304606 E-mail: sldgca@caa.lk Ref No. PEL/2011/02 Page 4 of 4 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011


Attachment to ASN 054 skills and attitudes to accomplish flight When the following terms are used in the Aviation Safety Notices for Personnel Licensing, they have the following meanings: Approved maintenance organization. An
organization approved by DGCA Sri Lanka, in Accredited
accordance with the requirements of ASN 045 conclusion reached by one or more medical Aircraft Maintenance, to perform maintenance experts acceptable to DGCA Sri Lanka for the of aircraft or parts thereof and operating under purposes of the case concerned, in consultation supervision approved by him.
with flight operations or other experts as Approved training. Training conducted under
special curricula and supervision approved by Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air
DGCA Sri Lanka.
aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces, which Approved training Organization. An
remain, fixed under given conditions of flight.
organization approved by and operating under the supervision of DGCA Sri Lanka in Aircraft. Any machines that can derive
accordance with the support in the atmosphere from the reactions of paragraph 8.0 of this ASN to perform approved the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface.
ATS surveillance service. Term used to
Aircraft avionics. A term designating any
indicate a service provided directly by means electronic device —including its electrical part of ATS surveillance system.
— for use in an aircraft, including radio, automatic flight control and instrument ATS surveillance system. A generic term
meaning variously, ADS-B, PSR, SSR or any comparable ground based system that enables Aircraft — category. Classification of aircraft
the identification of aircraft.
according to specified basic characteristics, e.g. aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon.
Note- A comparable ground-based system is one that has been demonstrated, by Aircraft certificated for single-pilot
comparative assessment or other methodology, operation. A type of aircraft, which the State
to have a level of safety and performance equal of Registry has determined, during the to or better than monopulse SSR.
certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew of one pilot.
Balloon. A non-power-driven lighter-than-air
Aircraft required to be operated with a co-
pilot: A type of aircraft that is required to be
Note.— For the purposes of this ASN, this operated with a co-pilot as specified in the definition applies to free balloons.
flight manual or by the air operator certificate.
Certify as airworthy (to). To certify that an
aircraft or parts thereof comply with current Aircraft — type of. All aircraft of the same
airworthiness requirements after maintenance basic design including all modifications thereto has been performed on the aircraft or parts except those modifications which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics.
Commercial air transport operation. An
Airship. A power-driven lighter than air
aircraft operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or Airmanship. The consistence use of good
judgment and well-developed knowledge, Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN 054 Competency. A combination of skills,
knowledge and attitudes required to perform a Flight crewmember. A licensed crewmember
task to the prescribed standard.
charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during a flight duty period.
Competency element. An action that
constitutes a task that has a triggering event Flight plan. Specified information provided to
and a terminating event that clearly defines its air traffic services units, relative to an intended limits, and an observable outcome.
flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.
Competency unit. A discrete function
Flight procedures trainer. See Flight
consisting of a number of competency simulation training device.
Flight simulator. See Flight simulation
Co-pilot. A licensed pilot serving in any
training device.
piloting capacity other than as pilot-in- command but excluding a pilot who is on Flight simulation training device. Any one of
board the aircraft for the sole purpose of the following three types of apparatus in which receiving flight instruction.
flight conditions are simulated on the ground: Credit. Recognition of alternative means or
A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical, Cross-Country. A flight between a point of
electrical, electronic, etc. aircraft systems departure and a point of arrival following a control functions, the normal environment of pre-planned route using standard navigation flight crew members, and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically simulated; Dual instruction time. Flight time during
which a person is receiving flight instruction A flight procedures trainer, which provides a from a properly authorized pilot on board the realistic flight deck environment, and which simulates instrument responses, simple control functions of mechanical, electrical, electronic, Error. An action or inaction by an operational
etc. aircraft systems, and the performance and person that leads to deviations from flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular organizational or operational person intentions or expectations.
A basic instrument flight trainer, which is Note- See Attachment E of Annex 13 – equipped with appropriate instruments, and Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation which simulates the flight deck environment for description of operational personnel of an aircraft in flight in instrument flight Error management. The process of detecting
and responding to errors with countermeasures Flight time — aeroplanes. The total time
that reduce or eliminate the consequences of from the moment an aeroplane first moves for errors, and mitigate the probability of further the purpose of taking off until the moment it errors or undesired states.
finally comes to rest at the end of the flight.
Note.- See Attachment C to Chapter 3 of the Note. — Flight time as here defined is Procedures for Air Navigation Services – synonymous with the term "block to block" Training (PANS-TRG, Doc 9868) and Circ.
time or "chock to chock" time in general usage Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air which is measured from the time an aeroplane Traffic Control (in preparation) for a first moves for the purpose of taking off until it description of undesired states. finally stops at the end of the flight.
Page 2 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 Flight time — helicopters. The total time
d) Approval of training courses; from the moment a helicopter's rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter e) Approval of the use of synthetic flight finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, trainers and authorization for their use in and the rotor blades are stopped.
gaining the experience or in demonstrating the skill required for the issue of a licence Glider. A non-power-driven heavier-than-air
aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces, which f) Validation of licences issued by other remain, fixed under given conditions of flight.
Contracting States.
Glider flight time. The total time occupied in
Likely. In the context of the medical
flight, whether being towed or not, from the provisions in ASN 059, likely means with a moment the glider first moves for the purpose probability of occurring that is unacceptable to of taking off until the moment it comes to rest the Medical Assessor.
at the end of the flight.
Maintenance. The performance of tasks
A heavier-than-air aircraft required to ensure the continuing airworthiness supported in flight chiefly by the reactions of of an aircraft, including any one or the air on one or more power-driven rotors on substantially vertical axes.
replacement, defect rectification, and the embodiment of a modification or repair.
Human performance. Human capabilities and
limitations, which have an impact on the safety Medical Assessment. The evidence issued by
and efficiency of aeronautical operations.
DGCA Sri Lanka that the licence holder meets specific requirements of medical fitness.
Instrument flight time. Time during which a
pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by reference Medical assessor. A physician, appointed by
to instruments and without external reference DGCA Sri Lanka qualified and experienced in the practice of aviation medicine and competent in evaluating and assessing medical Instrument ground time. Time during which
conditions of flight safety significance.
a pilot is practising, on the ground, simulated instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer Note 1 – Medical Assessors evaluate medical approved by DGCA Sri Lanka.
reports submitted to DGCA by medical Instrument time. Instrument flight time or
instrument ground time.
Note 2 – Medical Assessors are expected to maintain the currency of their professional Licensing Authority. DGCA Sri Lanka who is
the designated authority by the state as responsible for the licensing of personnel.
Medical examiner. A physician with training
Note.— DGCA has been given with the in aviation medicine and practical knowledge following responsibilities by the state: and experience of the aviation environment, who is designated by DGCA Sri Lanka to a) Assessment of an applicant's qualifications conduct medical examinations of fitness of to hold a licence or rating; applicants for licences or ratings for which b) Issue and endorsement of licences and medical requirements are prescribed.
Night. The hours between the end of evening
c) Designation and authorization of approved civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between Page 3 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 sunset and sunrise, as prescribed by DGCA Sri Quality system. Documented organizational
procedures and policies; internal audit of those Note.— Civil twilight ends in the evening policies and procedures; management review when the centre of the sun's disc is 6 degrees and recommendation for quality improvement.
below the horizon and begins in the morning when the centre of the sun's disc is 6 degrees Rated air traffic controller. An air traffic
below the horizon.
controller holding a licence and valid ratings appropriate to the privileges to be exercised.
Performance criteria. A simple, evaluative
statement on the required outcome of the Rating. An authorization entered on or
competency element and a description of the associated with a licence and forming part criteria used to judge if the required level of thereof, stating special conditions, privileges or performance has been achieved.
limitations pertaining to such licence.
Pilot (to). To manipulate the flight controls of
Rendering (a licence) valid. The action taken
an aircraft during flight time.
by DGCA Sri Lanka, as an alternative to issuing its own licence, in accepting a licence Pilot-in-command. The pilot designated by
issued by Contracting State as the equivalent of the operator, or in the case of general aviation, its own licence.
the owner, as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of a flight.
Safety Management System A systematic
approach to managing safety, including the Pilot-in-command under supervision. Co-
pilot performing, under the supervision of the accountabilities, policies and procedures.
pilot-in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-command, in accordance with a Sign a maintenance release (to). To certify
method of supervision acceptable to DGCA Sri that maintenance work has been completed satisfactorily in accordance with the applicable Standards of airworthiness, by issuing the Powered-lift. A heavier-than-air aircraft
maintenance release referred to in ASN Nos.
capable of vertical take-off, vertical landing, and low speed flight that depends principally on engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust Significant. In the context of the medical
for the lift during these flight regimes and on provisions in ASN 059, significant means to a non-rotating aerofoil(s) for lift during degree or of a nature that is likely to jeopardize horizontal flight.
flight safety.
Problematic use of substances. The use of
Solo flight time. Flight time during which a
one or more psychoactive substances by student pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft.
aviation personnel in a way that: State Safety Programme An integrated set of
a) Constitutes a direct hazard to the user or regulations and activities aimed at improving endangers the lives, health or welfare of b) Causes or worsens an occupational, social, mental or physical problem or disorder.
Threat. Events or errors that occur beyond the
influence of an operational person, increase Psychoactive substances. Alcohol, opioids,
operational complexity and which must be cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, managed to maintain the margin of safety.
hallucinogens, and volatile solvents, whereas Note- See Attachment E of Annex 13 – coffee and tobacco are excluded.
Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation for a description of operational personnel. Page 4 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 aircraft in international & domestic air Threat management. The process of detecting
and responding to the threats with countermeasures that reduce or eliminate the 2.0 Method of rendering a licence valid
consequences of threats, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft When DGCA Sri Lanka renders valid a licence issued by another Contracting State, as an alternative to the issuance of its own Note – See Attachment C to Chapter 3 of the licence, he will establish its validity by a Procedures of Air Navigation Services – suitable authorization carried with the former Training ( PANS – TRG, Doc 9868) and Circ licence accepting it as the equivalent of the Threat and Error Management (TEM) in Air latter. When DGCA Sri Lanka limits the Traffic Control (in preparation) for a authorization to specific privileges, the description of undesired states.
privileges of the licence which are to be accepted as its equivalent will be specified in 1.0 General rules concerning licences
the authorization. The validity of the authorization shall not extend beyond the This ASN stipulates the standards for licensing period of validity of the licence. The the following personnel: authorization ceases to be valid if the licence upon which it was issued is revoked or — Private pilot — Aeroplane; Airship; Helicopter or powered lift — Commercial pilot — Aeroplane; Airship; When an authorization under 2.1 is Helicopter; or powered lift issued for use in commercial air transport — Multi-crew Pilot - Aeroplane operations, DGCA Sri Lanka will confirm the — Airline transport pilot — Aeroplane; validity of the other Contracting State's licence before issuing the authorization.
— Glider pilot; A pilot licence issued by a Contracting — Free balloon pilot; State will be rendered valid by DGCA Sri — Flight navigator; Lanka for use in private flights.
— Flight engineer.
3.0 Privileges of the holder of a licence
b) Other personnel (Refer ANR 66(I)) — Aircraft maintenance (technician/engineer/ A holder of a licence shall not exercise — Air traffic controller; privileges other than those granted by that — Flight operations officer/ Flight dispatcher licence by DGCA Sri Lanka.
Aeronautical station operator DGCA Sri Lanka, shall take 1.1 Authority to act as a flight crewmember
appropriate action according to enforcement (Refer ANR 48, 49 and 94) manual -SLCAP 5350 when adequate evidence A person shall not act as a flight crewmember exists that a licence holder has exercised of an aircraft registered in Sri Lanka unless a privileges other than those granted by that valid licence is held showing compliance with licence or has not observed all the conditions the specifications of this regulations and of issuance of a licence or associated ratings appropriate to the duties to be performed by that person. The licence shall have been issued by DGCA Sri Lanka or any other Contracting 4.0 Medical fitness
State and rendered valid by DGCA Sri Lanka.
(Refer ANR 59) To satisfy the licensing requirements of The flight crewmembers are required to carry medical fitness for the issue of various types of their appropriate licences on board every licences, the applicant must meet certain Page 5 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 appropriate medical requirements, which are specified as three classes of Medical 4.3.1 The period of validity of a Medical Assessment. Details are given in 2, 3, 4 and 5 Assessment may be extended at the discretion of ASN # 059. to provide the necessary
of the DGCA, up to 45 days.
evidence to satisfy the requirements of 4.1, DGCA Sri Lanka issues the licence holder with 4.4 Except as provided in 5.2.3, flight the appropriate Medical Assessment, Class 1, crewmembers or air traffic controllers shall not Class 2 or Class 3. This is done as a statement exercise the privileges of their licence unless on the licence.
they hold a current Medical Assessment appropriate to the licence.
4.1 An applicant for a licence shall, when applicable, hold a Medical Assessment issued 4.5 DGCA shall designate medical examiners, in accordance with the provisions of ASN qualified and licensed in the practice of medicine, to conduct medical examinations of fitness of applicants for the issue or renewal of 4.2. From 18th November 2010 Sri Lanka shall the licences or ratings specified in ASN No apply, as part of its state safety programme, 055 and 056, and of the appropriate licences basic safety management principles to the specified in ASN No.112.
medical assessment process of licence holders, that as a minimum include: 4.5.1 Medical examiners shall have received training in Aviation Medicine and receive refresher training at regular intervals. Before incapacitation events and medical findings during medical assessments to demonstrate adequate competency in aviation identify areas of increased medical risk, 4.5.2 Medical examiners shall have practical b) continuous re-evaluation of the medical knowledge & experience such as flight assessment process to concentrate on experience, simulator experience, on-site identified areas of increased medical observation or any other hands-on experience as decided by DGCA Sri Lanka in which conditions, the holders of licences & ratings Note: A frame work for the implementation carryout their duties.
and maintenance of a state safety programme is continued in Appendix C of this ASN.
4.5.3 The competence of a medical examiner Guidance on state safety programmes and shall be evaluated periodically by the medical safety management principles is contained in the Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) and the Manual of Civil Aviation 4.6 Applicants for licences or ratings for which Medicine (Doc 8984).
medical fitness is prescribed shall sign and furnish to the medical examiner a declaration 4.3 The period of validity of a Medical stating whether they Assessment shall begin on the day, the medical undergone such an examination and, if so, the examination is performed, provided that the date , place and results of the medical examiner Medical Examination takes place during the of the last examination. They shall indicate to period of validity of current Medical the examiner whether a Medical Assessment Assessment, but not more than 45 days before has previously been refused, revoked or it expires. The expiry date of the Medical suspended and if so, the reason for such Assessment shall be the calendar day of the refusal, revocation or suspension.
month in which the Medical Assessment expires. The duration of the period of validity 4.6.1 Any false declaration to a medical shall be in accordance with the provisions of examiner made by an applicant for a licence or rating shall be reported to DGCA Sri Lanka Page 6 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 for such action as may be considered privileges of the licence applied for is not likely to jeopardize flight safety; Having completed the medical b) Relevant ability, skill and experience of the examination of the applicant in accordance applicant and operational conditions have been with ASN 059, the medical examiner shall given due consideration; and coordinate the results of the examination and submit a signed report, or equivalent, to c) The licence is endorsed with any special DGCA Sri Lanka, in accordance with the limitation or limitations when the safe requirements, detailing the results of the performance of the licence holder's duties is examination and evaluating the findings with dependent on compliance with such limitation regards to medical fitness.
or limitations.
4.7.1 If the medical examiner submits his 4.10. Medical confidentiality medical report in electronic format, adequate respected at all times by all involved with information about his identity shall be relevant tasks.
4.10.1 All medical reports and records shall be 4.7.2 If the medical examination is to be securely held with accessibility restricted to carried out by two or more medical examiners, one of these shall be appointed to be responsible for coordinating the results of the examination and evaluating the findings with considerations, the medical assessor shall regard to medical fitness & signing the report determine to what extent pertinent medical 4.8 DGCA shall use the services of a medical information is presented to relevant officials of assessor or assessors to evaluate reports the CAASL. However any information having submitted to DGCA by medical examiners and a bearing on safety of flight shall be released to to evaluate the competency of a medical DGCA Sri Lanka.
5.0 Validity of licences
4.8.1 The medical examiner shall be required (Refer ANR 68) to submit sufficient information to DGCA Sri 5.1 DGCA, having issued a licence, requires Lanka to enable that DGCA undertake Medical the holder of the licence to ensure that the Assessments Audits.
privileges granted by that licence, or by related ratings, are not exercised unless the holder Note: The purpose of such auditing is to ensure maintains competency and meets the that medical examiners meet applicable requirements for recent experience established standards for good medical practice and aero medical risk assessment. Guidance on aero medical risk assessment is contained in the 5.1.1 Requirements for maintenance of Manual of Civil Aviation Medicine (Doc 8984) competency and recent experience for pilot licences and ratings shall be based on 4.9 If the medical Standards prescribed in ASN systematic approach to accident prevention and No.059 for a particular licence are not met, the include a risk assessment process and analysis appropriate Medical Assessment shall not be of current operations including accident and issued or renewed unless the following incident data appropriate to Sri Lanka conditions are fulfilled: 5.1.2 DGCA Sri Lanka having issued a a) Accredited medical conclusion indicates that licence, shall ensure that other Contracting in special circumstances the applicant's failure States are enabled to be satisfied as to the to meet any requirement, whether numerical or validity of licence.
otherwise, is such that exercise of the Page 7 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 a) The maintenance of competency of month has no day with that number, the last flight crewmembers, engaged in day of that month.
commercial air transport operations, might be satisfactorily established by 5.2.2 The period of validity of a medical assessment may be reduced when clinically proficiency flight checks completed in accordance with ASN # 042. 5.2.3 When the holders of Airline Transport Maintenance of competency may be Pilot Licences – aeroplane, helicopter powered lift, and commercial pilot licences- aeroplane, operator's records, or in the flight airship, helicopter and powered lift who are crewmember's personal logbook or engaged in single crew commercial air transport operations, carrying passengers have passed their 40th birthday, the period of validity c) Flight crewmembers may, to the extent specified in 5.2 shall be reduced to six months.
deemed feasible, demonstrate their continuing Competency in synthetic When the holders of airline transport flight trainers approved by DGCA Sri pilot licences- aeroplane, helicopter and powered lift, commercial pilot licences - aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered lift, d) See the Manual of Criteria for the and multi crew pilot licences – aeroplane, who qualification of Flight Simulation are engaged in commercial air transport Training Devices (Doc 9625). operations, have passed their 60th birthday , the period of validity specified in 5.2 shall be reduced to six months.
Except as provided in 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3, 5.2.4, 5.2.5 and 5.2.6 a medical 5.2.5 When the holders of private pilot licences assessment issued in accordance with 4.5 and – aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered – 4.6 shall be valid from the date of the medical lift, free balloon pilot licences, glider pilot examination for a period not greater than 60 licences and air traffic controller licences have months for the Private Pilot Licence – passed their 40th birthday, the period of validity Aeroplane, Airship, helicopter and powered specified in 5.2 shall be reduced to 24 months.
When the holders of private pilot 12 months for the Commercial Pilot Licence – licences - aeroplane, airship, helicopter and Aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered lift powered – lift, free balloon pilot licences, 12 months for the Multi Crew Pilot Licence glider pilot licences and air traffic controller licences have passed their 50th birthday, the 12 months for the Airline Transport Pilot period of validity specified in 5.2 should be further reduced to 12 months.
Aero plane, helicopter and powered lift.
60 months for the Glider Pilot Licence Note: The periods of validity listed above are 60 months for the Free Balloon Pilot Licence based on the age of the applicant at the time of 12 months for the Flight Navigator Licence undergoing the medical examination.
12 months for the Flight Engineer Licence 48 months for the Air Traffic Controller 5.2.7 Circumstances in which a Medical Examination may be deferred.
5.2.1 When calculated in accordance with 5.2 A medical examination may be differed only in and its sub paragraphs, the period of validity the circumstance, when the licence holder is shall be for the last month counted, include the operating in an area distant from designated day that has the same calendar number as the medical examination facilities and at the date of the medical examination or if that Page 8 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 discretion of DGCA Sri Lanka, as an exception during any period in which their medical and not exceeding.
fitness has, from any cause, decreased to an extent that would have prevented the issue or a) A single period of six months in the case of renewal of their Medical Assessment a flight crewmember of an aircraft engaged in 7.0 Use of psychoactive substances
b) two consecutive periods each of three months 7.1 Holders of licences provided for in this in the case of a flight crew member of an ASN shall not exercise the privileges of their aircraft engaged in commercial operations licences and related ratings while under the provided that in each case a favourable medical report is obtained after examination by a influence of any psychoactive substance which designated medical examiner of the area might render them unable to safely and concerned, or, in cases where such a designated properly exercise these privileges.
medical examiner is not available, by a physician legal y qualified to practice medicine in that area.
A report of the medical examination shal be sent 7.2 Holders of licences provided for in this to the DGCA Sri Lanka by whom the licence ASN shall not engage in any problematic use of substances.
c) In the case of a private pilot, a single period 7.3 Any licence holder who engages in any not exceeding 24 months where the medical kind of problematic use of substances shall be examination is carried out by an examiner removed from his/her safety-critical functions.
designated under 1.2.4.4 of ICAO Annex I by Return to the safety-critical functions may be the CAA of the Contracting State in which the considered after successful treatment or, in applicant is temporarily located. A report of cases where no treatment is necessary, after the medical examination shall be sent to cessation of the problematic use of substances DGCA Sri Lanka by whom the licence was and upon determination that the person's continued performance of the function is unlikely to jeopardize safety.
6.0 Decrease in medical fitness
(Refer ANR 63) 8.0 Approved training and Approved
6.1 Holders of licences provided for in this ASN shall not exercise the privileges of their (Refer ANR 74 to 80) licences and related ratings at any time when Applicants, who undergo closely supervised, they are aware of any decrease in their medical systematic and continuous courses of training, fitness which might render them unable to conforming to a planned syllabus or safely and properly exercise these privileges.
curriculum, can more readily and speedily acquire the qualifications required for the issue 6.1.1 DGCA Sri Lanka should ensure that all of personnel licences. Provision has Sri Lankan licence holders are provided with accordingly been made for some reduction in clear guidelines on medical conditions that the experience requirements for the issue of may be relevant to flight safety and when to certain licences and ratings prescribed in ASN seek clarification or guidance from a medical 055, in respect of an applicant who has examiner or DGCA Sri Lanka.
satisfactorily completed a course of approved Note: Guidance on physical and mental conditions and treatments that are relevant to 8.1 Approved training shall provide a level of flight safety about which information may competency at least equal to that provided by need to be forwarded to DGCA Sri Lanka, is the minimum experience requirements for contained in the Appendix A.
personnel not receiving such approved 6.1.2 DGCA Sri Lanka requires all his licence holders to, ensure that they do not exercise the 8.2. The issuance of an approval for a training privileges of their licences and related ratings organization and the continued validity of the Page 9 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 approval will depend upon the training a description of the method used for organization being in compliance with the the completion and retention of the following requirements (8.2.1 – 8.2.10), ASN records required by 028 and Appendix D.
a description, when applicable, of Note- Guidance on approval of a training additional training needed to comply organization can be found in the ICAO Manual with an operator's procedures and on the Approval of Training Organizations requirements; and (Doc 9841) When DGCA Sri Lanka has authorized an approved training 8.2.1 Approval document organization to conduct the testing i. The approval document shall contain required for the issuance of a licence at least the following: or rating in accordance with Organizations' name and location; paragraph 8.2.10, a description of Date of issue and period of validity the selection, role and duties of the (Where appropriate); authorized personnel, as well as the Terms of approval.
applicable requirements established by DGCA Sri Lanka.
8.2.2 Training and procedures manual i. The training organization shall provide ii. The training organization shall ensure that a training and procedures manual for the use the training and procedures manual is amended and guidance of personnel concerned. This as necessary to keep the information contain manual may be issued in separate parts and therein up to date.
shall contain at least the following information: iii. Copies of all amendments to the training and procedures manual shall be furnished a general description of the scope of promptly to DGCA and all related training authorized under the organizations or persons to whom the manual organization's terms of approval; has been issued.
the content of the training programme offered including the 8.2.3. Training Programmes courseware and equipment to be i. DGCA shall approve a training programme a description of the organization's for a private pilot licence, commercial pilot quality assurance system in licence or an instrument rating or an aircraft accordance with paragraph 8.2.5 a description of the organizations licence that allows alternative means of compliance with the experience requirements the name, duties and qualification established by ASN 055 and 083 provided of the person designated as that the approved training organization responsible for compliance with the demonstrates to the satisfaction of DGCA requirements of the approval in that the training provides level of paragraph 8.2.7(i) competency at least equivalent to that a description of the duties and provided by the minimum experience qualification of the personnel requirements for personnel not receiving designated as responsible for such approved training.
Note: A comprehensive training scheme for a description of the procedures used to establish and maintain the including the various levels of competency, is contained in the Procedures for Air personnel as required by paragraph Navigation Services – Training (DOC 9868, Page 10 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 ii. DGCA shall approve a training programme The training organization shall establish a for multi-crew pilot licnece , provided that quality assurance system, acceptable to DGCA granting the approval, which ensures that demonstrates to the satisfaction of DGCA training and instructional practices comply that the training provides a level of with all relevant requirements.
competency in multi-crew operations at least equal to that met by holders of a commercial pilot licence, instrument rating and type i. The facilities and working rating for an areoplane certificated for environment shall be appropriate for the task to operation with a minimum crew of at least be performed and be acceptable to DGCA.
ii. The training organization shall have, 8.2.4. Safety Management or have access to, the necessary information, i. Sri Lanka shall require, as part of its state equipment, training devices and material to safety programme, that an approved training conduct the courses for which it is approved.
organization that is exposed to safety risks during the provision of its services implement Synthetic training devices shall be a safety management system acceptable to the qualified according to ICAO DOC Sri Lanka that, as a minimum: 9625/AN 938 Manual of criteria for Qualification of Flight Simulation a) identifies safety hazards; Training Devices and their use shall b) ensures the implementation of remedial be approved to ensure that they are action necessary to maintain agreed appropriate to the task.
safety performance; c) provides for continues monitoring and Note – The Manual of Criteria for the regular assessment of the safety Qualification of Flight Simulation Training Devices (Doc 9625) provides guidance on the d) aims at a continuous improvement of approval of flight simulation training device.
the overall performance of the safety management system.
i. The training organization shall on defining safety nominate a person responsible for ensuring that performance is contained in the Safety it is in compliance with the requirements for an Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) ii. A safety management system shall clearly ii. The organization shall employ the define lines of safety accountability throughout necessary personnel to plan, perform and the approved training organization, including a supervise the training to be conducted.
direct accountability for safety on the part of senior management.
iii. The competence of instructional personnel shall be according to procedures and Note 1- A framework for the implementation to a level acceptable to DGCA Sri Lanka.
and maintenance of a state safety programme is contained in Appendix D of this ASN.
The training organization shall ensure that all instructional personnel receive Note 2- The framework for the implementation initial and continuation training appropriate to and maintenance of a safety management their assigned tasks and responsibilities. The system is contained in Appendix C of this training programme established by the training ASN. Guidance on safety management system include training in is contained in the Safety Management Manual knowledge and skills related to human 8.2.5 Quality assurance system Page 11 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 i. The training organization shall retain conducted within an approved training detailed student records to show that all requirements of the training course have been met as agreed by DGCA.
Note: - A comprehensive training scheme for ii. The training organization shall maintain a system for recording the including the various levels of competency, is qualifications and training of instructional and contained in the Procedures for Air Navigation examining staff where appropriate.
Services – Training (Doc 9868, PANS-TRG). iii. The records required by 8.2.8(i) 9.0 Language proficiency
above shall be kept for a minimum period of two years after completion of the training. The 9.1 Aeroplane, airship, helicopter and records required by 8.2.8(ii) shall be retained powered- lift pilots and those flight navigators for a minimum period of two years after the who are required to use the radio telephone instructor or examiner ceases to perform a aboard an aircraft shall demonstrate the ability function for the training organization.
to speak and understand the language used for Oversight DGCA shall maintain an effective oversight programme of the approved 9.2 Air traffic controllers and aeronautical training organization to ensure continuing station operators shall demonstrate the ability compliance with the approval requirements.
to speak and understand the language used for 8.2.10 Evaluation and checking When DGCA has authorized an approved 9.3 In the case of Flight Engineers, in instance training organization to conduct the testing where the flight crew are composed of non- required for the issuance of a licensing or native English speakers and whose native rating ,the testing shall be conducted by language is different from each other the Flight personnel authorized by DGCA or designated Engineers shall have the ability to speak and by the training organization in accordance with understand them in English language unless criteria approved by DGCA.
the Flight Crew is proficient to understand his native language. Glider and free balloon pilots Approved training for flight crew and shall have the ability to speak and understand air traffic controllers shall be conducted the language used for radio telephony within an approved training organization.
Note: - The approved training considered in 9.4 As of 05 March 2008 Aeroplane, airship, 8.3 relates primarily to approved training for helicopter and powered-lift pilots, flight the issuance of an Annex 1 licence or rating. It navigators required to use the radio telephone is not intended to include approved training for aboard an aircraft, air traffic controllers and the maintenance of competence or for an operational qualification after the initial demonstrate the ability to speak and issuance of a licence or rating, as may be required for air traffic controllers or for flight radiotelephony communications to the level crew, such as the approved training under specified in the language proficiency ICAO Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft, Part I- requirements in Appendix ‘B'.
International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes, 9.3 or Part III – International 9.5 As of 5 March 2008, the language Operations – Helicopters, Section II, 7.3 proficiency of Aeroplane, airship, helicopter and powered -lift pilots, flight navigators Competency based approved training required to use the radio telephone aboard an for aircraft maintenance personnel shall be aircraft, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency Page 12 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 below the Expert Level (Level 6) will be Examiners according to the procedures formally evaluated at intervals in accordance specified in the appropriate Manuals.
with an individual's demonstrated proficiency 10.4. A Designated Examiner Authorization issued by DGCA shall remain valid for three 9.6 The language proficiency of Aeroplane, (03) years from the date of issue unless it is airship, helicopters and powered lift pilots, suspended, revoked or cancelled.
flight navigators required to use the radio telephone aboard an aircraft, air traffic 11.0. Archiving Records
controllers and aeronautical station operators who demonstrate proficiency below the Expert All records pertaining to personnel licences, Level (Level 6) will be formally evaluated at and any other licences and certificates shall be intervals in accordance with an individual's archived in the following manner.
demonstrated proficiency level, as follows: 11.1. Any record pertaining to personnel a) Those demonstrating language proficiency licences shall be archived until the death of the at the Operational Level (Level 4) of Appendix holder or till the record is seventy-five (75) ‘B' will be evaluated at least once every three 11.2. Records pertaining to lapsed licences up b) Those demonstrating language proficiency to two (02) years shall be placed in the at the Extended Level (Level 5) of Attachment Archives Unit of the Personnel Licencing no 3 will be evaluated at least once every six 11.3. Records pertaining to lapsed licences for c) Formal evaluation is not required for more than two (02) years shall be placed in the applicants who demonstrate expert language Archives Unit (Record Room) of the CAASL.
proficiency, e.g. native and very proficient non-native speakers with a dialect or accent 11.4. Records on archiving as per paras 11.1, intelligible to the international aeronautical 11.2 and 11.3 above shall be maintained in the Personnel Licencing Section and copies of the records shall be provided to the Archives Unit 10.0. Designated Examiners
and the Cooperate Division of CAASL.
DGCA, Sri Lanka shall designate Examiners qualified and licenced appropriately to conduct knowledge tests and skill tests on applicants for issue, renewal or re-activation of a licence or a rating as required by ASN nos. 036, 055, 057, 111, 112 and 122.
Examiners shall demonstrate adequate competency in the appropriate tasks of their 10.2. Designated Examiners shall have received training and refresher training related to their designation.
10.3. Designated Examiners shall exercise the privileges of their Authorization as Designated Page 13 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 and rapid reaction times. Persons with conditions which are apt to produce sudden INFORMATION FOR FLIGHT CREW
incapacitation, such as epilepsy, serious heart REGARDING MEDICAL CONDITIONS
trouble, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or & HEALTH.
diabetes mellitus requiring hypoglycaemic agents, and certain other conditions hazardous (ASN 054-Para 6.1.1 refers)
to flight, are medically disqualifying.
Conditions such as acute infections, anaemias disqualifying. Consult your aviation medical Just as your aircraft is required to undergo examiner when in doubt about any aspect of regular checks and maintenance, you are also your health status, just as you would consult a required to undergo regular medical licensed aviation mechanic when in doubt examinations to ensure your fitness to fly. The about the engine status.
physical standards you are required to meet are minimum standards. You do not have to be a SPECIFIC AEROMEDICAL FACTORS
superman to fly. Many defects can be compensated for, as, for example, wearing glasses for visual defects. You may be required to demonstrate by a medical flight test Fatigue generally slows reaction times and that you can compensate for any other defects causes errors due to inattention. In addition to of potential significance to flight safety.
the most common cause of fatigue, insufficient rest and loss of sleep, the pressures of It should be recalled that humans are business, financial worries and family essentially earthbound creatures. However, if problems can be important contributing we are aware of certain aero medical factors factors. If your fatigue is marked prior to a and pay attention to these, we can leave the given flight, don't fly. To prevent fatigue earth and fly safely. What follows will not be effects during long flights, keep active with one hard comprehensive lesson in aviation respect to making ground checks, radio- medicine, but will point out the more navigation position plotting, and remaining important factors with which you should be mentally active.
familiar prior to flying.
Modern industry's record in providing reliable equipment is very good. When the pilot enters Hypoxia in simple terms is a lack of sufficient the aircraft, he becomes an integral part of the oxygen to keep the brain and other body man-machine system. He is just as essential to tissues functioning properly. Wide individual a successful flight as the control surfaces. To variation occurs with respect to susceptibility ignore the pilot in preflight planning would be to hypoxia. In addition to a progressive lack of as senseless as failing to inspect the integrity oxygen at higher altitudes, anything interfering of the control surfaces or any other vital part of with the blood's ability to carry oxygen can the machine. The pilot himself has the sole contribute to hypoxia (anaemias, carbon responsibility for determining his reliability monoxide, and certain drugs). Also, alcohol prior to entering the cockpit for flight.
and various drugs decrease the brain's tolerance to hypoxia.
Your brain has no built-in alarm system to let While piloting an aircraft, an individual should you know when you are not getting enough be free of conditions which are harmful to oxygen. It is impossible to predict when or alertness, ability to make correct decisions, where hypoxia will occur during a given flight, or how it will manifest itself.
A major early symptom of hypoxia is an increased sense of well-being (referred to as Page 14 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 euphoria). This progresses to slowed reaction, flying. The safest rule is to take no medicine impaired thinking ability, unusual fatigue, and while flying, except on the advice of your a dull headache feeling.
aviation medical examiner. It should also be remembered that the condition for which the The symptoms are slow but progressive, drug is required may of itself be very insidious in onset, and are most marked at hazardous to flying, even when the symptoms altitudes starting above 10 000 feet (3 500 are suppressed by the drug.
metres). Night vision, however can be impaired starting at altitudes lower than 10 000 Certain specific drugs which have been feet (3 500 metres) Heavy smokers may also associated with aircraft accidents in the recent experience early symptoms of hypoxia at past are: Antihistamines (widely prescribed for altitudes lower than is so with nonsmokers.
hay fever and other allergies); Tranquillizers If you observe the general rule of not flying hypertension, and other conditions); reducing above 10 000 feet (3 500 metres) without drugs (amphetamines and other appetite supplemental oxygen, you will not get in to suppressing drugs can produce sensations of well-being which have an adverse effect on judgement); Barbiturates, Nerve tonics or pills (prescribed for digestive and other disorders, barbiturates produce a marked suppression of Do not fly while under the influence of mental alertness).
alcohol. An excellent rule is to allow twenty- four hours between the last drink and take-off Remember that following local and general time. Even small amounts of alcohol in the dental and other anaesthetics a period of at system can adversely affect judgement and least 48 hours should be spent on the ground decision making abilities.
and if any doubt remains concerning the right time to resume flying, then seek appropriate small amounts of alcohol medical advice.
significantly decrease a pilot's tolerance to hypoxia (oxygen lack). At 6 000 feet (2 100 metres) the effect of one drink is that of two drinks at sea level. Even at sea level alcohol The word itself is hard to define. To earth- impairs judgement and reaction time therefore bound individuals it usually means dizziness ALCOHOL AND FLYING DO NOT MIX. or swimming of the head. To a pilot it means, in simple terms, not knowing which end is up.
Remember that your body metabolizes alcohol In fact, vertigo during flight can have fatal at a fixed rate, and no amount of coffee or medication will alter this rate.
On the ground we know which way is up by By all means, do not fly with a hangover, or a the combined use of three senses: "masked hangover" (symptoms suppressed by Vision – we can see where we are aspirin or other medication).
in relation to fixed objects.
Pressure – Gravitational pull on muscles and joints tells us which way is down.
Self-medication or taking medicine in any Special parts in our inner ear – the form when you are flying can be extremely otoliths tell us which way is down hazardous. Even simple home or over-the- by gravitational pull.
counter remedies and drugs such as aspirin, antihistamines, cold tablets, cough mixtures, It should be noted that accelerations of the body are detected by the fluid in the semi- suppressors, may seriously impair the circular canals of the inner ear, and this tells us judgement and co-ordination needed while when we change position. However, in the Page 15 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 absence of a visual reference, such as flying in the hemoglobin of the blood. Further more, to a cloud or a overcast, the accelerations can once carbon monoxide is absorbed in the be confusing, specially since their forces can blood, it sticks "like glue" to the hemoglobin be misinterpreted as, gravitational pulls on the and actually prevents the oxygen from muscles and otoliths. The result is often attaching to the hemoglobin.
disorientation and vertigo. (Or dizziness).
Most heaters in light aircraft work by air All pilots should have an instructor pilot flowing over the main fold. So if you have to produce manoeuvres which will produce the use the heater, be wary if you smell exhaust sensation of the vertigo. Once experienced, fumes. The onset of symptoms is insidious, later unanticipated incidents of vertigo can be with "blurred thinking", a possible feeling of overcome. Closing the eyes for a second or uneasiness, and subsequent dizziness. Later two may help, as will watching the flight headache occurs. Immediately shut off the instruments, believing them, and controlling heater, open the air ventilators, descend to the aircraft in accordance with the information lower altitudes, and land at the nearest air presented on the instruments.
field. Consultant aviation medical examiner. It may take several days to fully recover and Pilots are susceptible to experiencing vertigo clear the body of the carbon monoxide.
at night, and in any flight condition when outside visibility is reduced to the point that the horizon is obscured. An additional type of vertigo is known as flicker vertigo. Light On the ground, reduced or impaired vision can flickering at certain frequencies, from four to sometimes be dangerous depending on where twenty times per second, can produce you are and what you are doing. In flying, it is unpleasant and dangerous reactions in some always dangerous.
persons. These reactions may include nausea, dizziness, unconsciousness, or even reactions On the ground or in the air, a number of similar to an epileptic fit. In a single engine factors such as hypoxia, carbon monoxide, propeller aeroplane heading in to the sun, the alcohol, drugs, fatigue or even bright sunlight propeller may cut the sun to give this flashing can affect your vision. In the air these effects effect, particularly during landings when the are critical.
engine is throttled back. These undesirable effects may be avoided by not staring directly Some good specific rules are: Make use of through the prop for more than a moment, and sunglasses on bright days to avoid eye fatigue; by making frequent but small changes in RPM.
during night flights, use red covers on the The flickering light traversing helicopter flashlights to avoid destroying any dark blades has been known to cause this adaptation; remember that drugs, alcohol, difficultly, as has the bounce-back from heavy smoking and the other factors rotating beacons on aircraft which have mentioned above have early effects on visual penetrated clouds. If the beacon is bothersome, shut it off during these periods.
Middle ear discomfort or pain.
Certain persons (whether pilots or passengers) Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless, have difficulty balancing the air loads on the tasteless product of an internal combustion ear drum while descending. This is particularly engine and is always present in exhaust fumes.
troublesome if a head cold or throat Even minute quantities of carbon monoxide inflammation keeps the Eustachian tube from breathe over long period of time may lead to opening properly. If this trouble occurs during dire consequences.
descent, try swallowing, yawning, or holding the nose and mouth shut and forcibly exhaling.
For biochemical reasons, carbon monoxide has If no relief occurs, climb back up a few a greater ability than oxygen to combine with thousand feet to relieve the pressure on the Page 16 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 outer drum. Then descend again, using these (bends) at the surface altitude, as a result of measures. A more gradual descent may be being unable to decompress before surfacing.
tried, and it may be necessary to go through In some of these cases air evacuation is the several climbs and descents to "stair step" only feasible method of getting the patient to a down. If a nasal inhaler is available, it may decompression chamber in time to treat this afford relief. If trouble persists several hours condition, and it should not be excluded.
after landing, consult your aviation medical Flight, however, should be at the lowest possible altitude to avoid aggravating the Note- if you find yourself airborne with a head cold, you may possibly avoid trouble by using Air which may have become trapped in the an inhaler kept as part of the flight kit. middle ear or sinuses at high pressures while diving will be further aggravated by flying.
The development of panic in inexperienced pilots is a process which can get in to a vicious Mention should be made that blood donation circle with itself and lead to unwise and and flying do not mix. Disturbance to the precipitous actions. If lost or in some other circulation following blood donations takes predicament, forcibly take stock of yourself several weeks to return to normal and although and do not allow panic to mushroom. Panic effects are slight whilst at ground level, there can be controlled. Remember, to prevent are risks when actively flying. If blood has panic, think straight. Fear is a normal been given, an appropriate medical source protective reaction, and occurs in normal should be consulted before returning to flying.
individuals. Fear progression to panic is an Hyperventilation, or over-breathing, is a disturbance of respiration that may occur in If you fly in an aircraft following scuba diving individuals as a result of emotional tension or or any underwater activity using compressed anxiety. Under conditions of emotional stress, air, you should be aware that if insufficient fright or pain, the breathing rate may increase, time has elapsed between surfacing and take- causing increased lung ventilation, although off, the medical consequences can be serious the carbon dioxide output of the body cells or even fatal. Due to greatly increased does not increase. As a result carbon dioxide is pressures underwater, excess nitrogen is "washed out" of the blood. The most common absorbed in to the blood and tissues. The symptoms of hyper-ventilation are: dizziness; amount depends on the depth and duration of hot and cold sensations; tingling of the hands; exposure. If take-off follows the dive too soon legs and feet; muscle spasms; nausea; to allow the body to rid itself normally of this sleepiness; and finally unconsciousness.
excess nitrogen, the gas may form bubbles in the blood or tissues causing discomfort , pain, Should symptoms occur which cannot difficulty in breathing, or even death, at definitely be identified as either hypoxia or altitudes of 7 000 feet ( 2 450 metres) or less, hyperventilation, the following steps should be where most light planes fly. Older or overweight individuals are more susceptible to select 100 per cent oxygen, check this condition. As a general rule, individuals your oxygen supply, oxygen should not fly within 24 hours following equipment and flow mechanism.
diving, and certainly not the same day.
After three or four deep breaths of oxygen, the symptoms should Occasionally a ‘medical emergency" arises as improve markedly. If the condition a result of compressed air diving, when a diver was hypoxia, recovery is rapid.
is in danger of developing air- embolism Page 17 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 consciously slow your breathing rate until symptoms clear and then resume normal breathing rate.
Breathing can be slowed by breathing in to a bag, or talking Page 18 of 24 Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka 30 December 2011 Attachment to ASN 054 LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE – 1
Expert, extended and operational levels
(ASN 054 – Para 9.4 refers)
Assumes a dialect and/or accent intelligible to the structures and sentence patterns are determined by appropriate to the task. Pronunciation, stress, Both basic and complex Vocabulary range and Able to speak at length with Comprehension is Interacts with ease in rhythm, and intonation, grammatical structures and accuracy are sufficient to a natural, effortless flow.
consistently accurate in nearly all situations. Is though possibly influenced sentence patterns are communicate effectively on Varies speech flow for nearly all contexts and sensitive to verbal and by the first language or consistently well controlled. a wide variety of familiar stylistic effect, e.g. to includes comprehension of non-verbal cues and regional variation, almost and unfamiliar topics.
emphasize a point. Uses linguistic and cultural never interfere with ease of Vocabulary is idiomatic, appropriate discourse nuanced, and sensitive to markers and connectors Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical structures Vocabulary range and Able to speak at length with Comprehension is accurate Responses are immediate, rhythm, and intonation, and sentence patterns are accuracy are sufficient to relative ease on familiar on common, concrete, and though influenced by the consistently well controlled. communicate effectively on topics but may not vary work-related topics and informative. Manages the first language or regional Complex structures are common, concrete, and speech flow as a stylistic mostly accurate when the speaker/ listener variation, rarely interfere attempted but with errors device. Can make use of speaker is confronted with a relationship effectively.
with ease of understanding.
which sometimes interfere Paraphrases consistently and appropriate discourse linguistic or situational with meaning.
successfully. Vocabulary is markers or connectors.
complication or an unexpected turn of events. Is able to comprehend a range of speech varieties (dialect and/or accent) or registers.
Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range and Produces stretches of Comprehension is mostly Responses are usually Operational 4 rhythm, and intonation are structures and sentence accuracy are usually language at an appropriate accurate on common, immediate, appropriate, and influenced by the first patterns are used creatively tempo. There may be concrete, and work-related informative. Initiates and language or regional and are usually well communicate effectively on occasional loss of fluency on topics when the accent or maintains exchanges even variation but only controlled. Errors may common, concrete, and transition from rehearsed or variety used is sufficiently when dealing with an sometimes interfere with occur, particularly in work-related topics. Can formulaic speech to intelligible for an unexpected turn of events.
ease of understanding.
unusual or unexpected spontaneous interaction, but international community of Deals adequately with circumstances, but rarely successfully when lacking this does not prevent users. When the speaker is interfere with meaning.
vocabulary in unusual or confronted with a linguistic by checking, confirming, or Can make limited use of or situational complication discourse markers or or an unexpected turn of connectors. Fillers are not events, comprehension may be slower or require Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN 054 LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY RATING SCALE – 2
Pre-operational, elementary and pre-elementary levels
(ASN 054 – Para 9.4 refers) Assumes a dialect and/or structures and sentence accent intelligible to the patterns are determined by appropriate to the task. Levels 4, 5 and 6 are on preceding page. Pronunciation, stress, Basic grammatical Vocabulary range and Produces stretches of Comprehension is often Responses are sometimes operational rhythm, and intonation structures and sentence accuracy are often language, but phrasing accurate on common, immediate, appropriate, are influenced by the patterns associated with and pausing are often concrete, and work- and informative. Can first language or regional predictable situations are related topics when the initiate and maintain variation and frequently common, concrete, or or slowness in language accent or variety used is exchanges with interfere with ease of controlled. Errors work-related topics, but processing may prevent reasonable ease on frequently interfere with range is limited and the for an international familiar topics and in word choice often Fillers are sometimes community of users.
inappropriate. Is often May fail to understand a Generally inadequate unable to paraphrase linguistic or situational when dealing with an successfully when complication or an unexpected turn of lacking vocabulary.
Elementary Pronunciation, stress, Shows only limited Limited vocabulary Can produce very short, Response time is slow rhythm, and intonation control of a few simple range consisting only of isolated, memorized utterances limited to isolated, and often inappropriate.
are heavily influenced by memorized grammatical isolated words and with frequent pausing and a memorized phrases when Interaction is limited to the first language or structures and sentence memorized phrases.
distracting use of fillers to they are carefully and regional variation and search for expressions and to slowly articulated.
usually interfere with articulate less familiar ease of understanding.
Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level below Performs at a level Performs at a level below the Elementary level.
the Elementary level.
the Elementary level.
the Elementary level.
below the Elementary the Elementary level.
Note.— The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication. Levels 1 through 3 describe Pre- elementary, Elementary, and Pre-operational levels of language proficiency, respectively, all of which describe a level of proficiency below the ICAO language proficiency requirement. Levels 5 and 6 describe Extended and Expert levels, at levels of proficiency more advanced than the minimum required Standard. As a whole, the scale will serve as benchmarks for training and testing, and in assisting candidates to attain the ICAO Operational Level (Level 4). Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN 054 FRAMEWORK FOR THE STATE
Note.— Within the context of this appendix SAFETY PROGRAMME (SSP)
term service provider" refers to any (Para 4.2 of ASN 054 refers) organization providing aviation services. The This appendix introduces a framework for the organizations that are exposed to safety risks implementation and maintenance of a State during the provision of their services, aircraft safety programme (SSP) by Sri Lanka. An SSP operators, approved maintenance organiza- is a management system for the management of tions, organizations responsible for type design and/or manu- facture of aircraft, air contemplates four components and eleven services providers and certified aerodromes, as applicable. implementation of an SSP is commensurate with the size and complexity of the State's 1. State Safety Policy and Objectives
aviation system, and may require coordination among multiple authorities responsible for 1.1.State Safety Legislative Framework individual elements of civil aviation functions in the State. The SSP framework introduced in The State has promulgated a national safety this appendix, and the safety management system (SMS) framework specified in Appendix D, regulations, in compliance with international must be viewed as complementary, ye t and national standards, that define how the State will conduct the management of safety in al so includes a brief description of each the State. This includes the participation of element of the framework.
State aviation organizations in specific activities related to the management of safety 1. State Safety Policy and Objectives
in the State, and the establishment of the roles, responsibilities and relationships of such 1.1.State safety legislative framework organizations. The safety legislative framework and specific regulations are periodically reviewed to ensure they remain relevant and 1.3.Accident and incident investigation appropriate to the State.
1.4.Enforcement policy 1.2. State Safety Responsibilities and 2. State Safety Risk Management
2.1.Safety requirements for the service The State has identified, defined and documented the requirements, responsibilities accountabilities provider's safety performance establishment and maintenance of the SSP.
This includes the directives to plan, organize, 3. State Safety Assurance
develop, maintain, control and continuously 3.1.Safety oversight improve the SSP in a manner that meets the 3.2.Safety data collection, analysis and State's safety objectives. It also includes a clear statement about the provision of the 3.3.Safety-data-driven targeting of oversight of necessary resources for the implementation of areas of greater concern or need 4. State Safety Promotion
1.3.Accident and Incident Investigation The State has established an independent 4.1. Internal training, communication and accident and incident investigation process, the dissemination of safety information sole objective of which is the prevention of accidents and incidents, and not the 4.2.External Training, Communication and Dissemination of Safety Information apportioning of blame or liability. Such Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN 054 investigations are in support of the mechanisms to ensure that the identification of management of safety in the State. In the hazards and the management of safety risks by operation of the SSP, the State maintains the service providers follow established regulatory independence of the accident and incident controls (requirements, specific operating investigation organization from other State regulations and implementation policies).
These mechanisms include inspections, audits and surveys to ensure that regulatory safety 1.4.Enforcement Policy risk controls are appropriately integrated into The State has promulgated an enforcement the service provider's SMS, that they are being p o l i c y that establishes the conditions and practised as designed, and that the regulatory controls have the intended effect on safety circumstances under which service providers are allowed to deal with, and resolve, events involving certain safety deviations, internally, 3.2.Safety Data Collection, Analysis and within the context of the service provider's safety management system (SMS), and to the satisfaction of the appropriate State The State has established mechanisms to ensure authority. The enforcement policy also the capture and storage of data on hazards and establishes the conditions and circumstances safety risks at both an individual and aggregate under which to deal with safety deviations State level. The State has also established through established enforcement procedures.
mechanisms to develop information from the stored data, and to actively exchange safety 2. State Safety Risk Management
information with service providers and/or 2.1.Safety Requirements for the Service other States as appropriate.
3.3.Safety Data Driven Targeting of Oversight of Areas of Greater Concern or Need The State has established the controls which govern how service providers will identify The State has established procedures to hazards and manage safety risks. These prioritize inspections, audits and surveys include the requirements, specific operating towards those areas of greater safety concern regulations and implementation policies for or need, as identified by the analysis of data the service provider's SMS. The requirements, on hazards, their consequences in operations, and the assessed safety risks.
reviewed to ensure they remain relevant and 4. State Safety Promotion
appropriate to the service providers.
4.1.Internal Training, Communication and 2.2.Agreement on the Service Provider's Dissemination of Safety Information Safety Performance The State provides training and fosters The State has agreed with individual service awareness and two-way communication o f providers on the safety performance of their SMS. The agreed safety performance of an individual service provider's SMS is periodical y reviewed to ensure it remains relevant and organizational culture that fosters an effective appropriate to the service providers.
and efficient SSP.
4.2 External Training, Communication and 3. State Safety Assurance
Dissemination of Safety Information 3.1.Safety Oversight The State provides education and promotes awareness of safety risks and two-way The State has established mechanisms communication of safety-relevant information to ensure effective monitoring of the eight to support, among service providers, the critical elements of the safety oversight development of an organizational culture that function. The State has also established fosters an effective and efficient SMS.
Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN No 054 signed by the accountable executive of the FRAMEOWRK FOR SAFTEY
organization. The safety policy shall reflect MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SMS)
organizational commitments regarding safety; (Para 8.2 of ASN 054 refers) shall include a clear statement about the provision of the necessary resources for the This appendix specifies the framework for the implementation of the safety policy; and shall implementation and maintenance of a safety be communicated, with visible endorsement, management system (SMS) by an approved throughout the organization. The safety policy training organization. An SMS is a shall include the safety reporting procedures; management sys- tem for the management of shall clearly indicate which types of safety by an organization. The framework operational behaviours are unacceptable; and includes four components and twelve elements shall include the conditions under which rep- resenting the minimum requirements for disciplinary action would not apply. The SMS implementation. The implementation of safety policy shall be periodically reviewed to the framework shall be commensurate with the ensure it remains relevant and appropriate to size of the organization and the complexity of the organization.
the ser- vices provided. This appendix also includes a brief description of each element of the framework.
The approved training organization shall 1. Safety Policy and Objectives
identify the account- able executive who, irrespective of other functions, shall have 1.1.Management commitment and ultimate responsibility and accountability, on behalf of the approved training organization, for the implementation and maintenance of 1.3.Appointment of key safety personnel the SMS. The approved training organization 1.4.Coordination of emergency response shall also identify the accountabilities of all members of management, irrespective of other 1.5.SMS documentation functions, as well as of employees, with respect to the safety performance of the SMS.
2. Safety Risk Management
Safety responsibilities, accountabilities and communicated throughout the organization, 2.2.Safety risk assessment and mitigation and shall include a definition of the levels of management with authority to make decisions 3. Safety Assurance
regarding safety risk tolerability.
3.1.Safety performance monitoring and 1.3.Appointment of key Safety Personnel 3.2.The management of change The approved training organization shall 3.3.Continuous improvement of the SMS identify a safety manager to be the responsible individual and focal point for the 4. Safety Promotion
implementation and maintenance of an effective SMS.
4.1.Training and education 4.2.Safety communication 1.4.Coordination of Emergency Response 1. Safety Policy and Objectives
1.1.Management Commitment and The approved training organization shall ensure that an emergency response plan that provides for the orderly and efficient The approved training organization shall transition from normal to emergency define the organization's safety policy which operations and the return to normal operations shall be in accordance with international and is properly coordinated with the emergency national requirements, and which shall be response plans of those organizations it must Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka Attachment to ASN No 054 interface with during the provision of its the safety performance indicators and safety performance targets of the SMS.
1.5.SMS Documentation 3.2.The Management of Change The approved training organization shall The approved training organization shall develop an SMS implementation plan, develop and maintain a formal process to endorsed by senior management of the identify changes within the organization organization, that defines the organization's which may affect established processes and approach to the management of safety in a services; to describe the arrangements to manner that meets the organization's safety objectives. The approved training organization implementing changes; and to eliminate or modify safety risk controls that are no longer documentation describing the safety policy needed or effective due to changes in the and objectives, the SMS requirements, the accountabilities, responsibilities and authorities 3.3.Continuous Improvement of the for processes and procedures, and the SMS outputs. Also as part of the SMS The approved training organization shall organization shall develop and maintain a develop and maintain a formal process to safety management system manual (SMSM), to communicate its approach to the performance of the SMS, determine the management of safety throughout the implications of sub- standard performance of the SMS in operations, and eliminate or mitigate such causes.
2. Safety Risk Management
4. Safety Promotion
4.1. Training and Education The approved training organization shall The approved training organization shall develop and maintain a formal process that develop and maintain a safety training ensures that hazards in operations are programme that ensures that personnel are identified. Hazard identification shall be trained and competent to perform the SMS based on a combination of reactive, proactive duties. The scope of the safety training shall and predictive methods of safety data involvement in the SMS.
2.2.Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation 4.2.Safety Communication The approved training organization shall The approved training organization shall develop and maintain a formal process that develop and maintain formal means for safety ensures analysis, assessment and control of the communication that ensures that all personnel safety risks in training operations.
are fully aware of the SMS, conveys safety- 3. Safety Assurance
critical information, and explains why particular safety actions are taken and why 3.1.Safety Performance Monitoring and safety procedures are introduced or changed The approved training organization shall develop and maintain the means to verify the safety performance of the organization and to validate the effectiveness of safety risk controls. The safety performance of the organization shall be verified in reference to Civil Aviation Authority of Sri Lanka

Source: http://rptgroup.lk/Files/Other/asn054.pdf

Control over large-volume changes of lithium battery anodes via active–inactive metal alloy embedded in porous carbon

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com RAPID COMMUNICATION Control over large-volume changes of lithiumbattery anodes via active–inactive metal alloyembedded in porous carbon Nasir MahmoodJinghan Sarish Rehman, Quan LiYanglong Hou aDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University,Beijing 100871, ChinabDepartment of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong, China

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letters to nature 9. Gatz, C. Chemical control of gene expression. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 48, 89–108 high-affinity epitope tag so that the resulting fusion proteins are expressed under the control of their natural promoters. The fusion 10. Gatz, C., Frohberg, C. & Wendenburg, R. Stringent repression and homogeneous de-repression by tetracycline of a modified CaMV 35S promoter in intact transgenic tobacco plants. Plant J. 2, 397–404