Inside pages - 19-04-14

The Journal of
Integrated Health Sciences
Available online at www.jihs.in Protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Coriandrum sativum l. in acetic acid-induced
ulcerative colitis in male wistar rats

S.Poojari , R.Bhargavi , M. Mohan1,2 PG Student; Professor & Head, Department of Pharmacology, Priyadarshini College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Narapally, Chowdaryguda (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R.District, 500088, Andhra Pradesh Objective: To evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of dried seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.
(C.sativum) in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.
Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into various treatment groups (n=5). The animals were administered with
2ml of acetic acid (4% v/v) via intrarectal route to induce colitis. Prednisolone (2mg/kg) was used as a standard
drug and C.sativum was administered at a dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Macroscopic scoring, colon weight to
length ratio, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation
(LPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels and histopathological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen
of 11 days.
Results: Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused significant (P<0.05) increase in colon weight to length ratio,
LPO, and MPO levels; and significant (P<0.05) decrease in the levels of SOD, CAT and GSH levels. Pretreatment
with C.sativum (100, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant (P<0.05) reversal of all the above biochemical
parameters and significantly reversed the histopathological changes induced by acetic acid treatment.
Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrates the potent therapeutic value of C.sativum (100, 300 mg/kg,
p.o.) in the amelioration of experimental colitis in rats. The beneficial effect of C.sativum could be attributed to its
antioxidant effect.
Key Words: C.sativum, Acetic acid, Ulcerative colitis, antioxidant
patients unresponsive to or unwilling to take standard medicines. Among these alternative approaches is the Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic Inflammatory use of food derivatives, which have the advantage of Bowel Disease (IBD) characterized by cycles of acute being relatively nontoxic. However, limited scientific inflammation, ulceration and bleeding of the colonic evidence regarding the effectiveness of these natural mucosa. IBD is a chronic, remitting relapsing derivatives, in conjunction with a lack of mechanistic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by understanding of their actions has prevented their inflammation and tissue damage. The etiology of the incorporation into the mainstream of medical care. disease although not well understood, is thought to be During the last decade, a large number of dietary multifactorial. Oxidative stress is one of the key components have been evaluated as potential biochemical features of the disease . Various chemopreventive agents . IBD patients turn to inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenases alternative therapies for various reasons, including (COX-1 and COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha side effects or lack of effectiveness of conventional (TNF-a), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-12 therapies, fear of surgery, presumed safety and (IL-12), the presence of highly activated effectiveness of alternative treatments, or the simple inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, dendritic desire to regain control of their deteriorating health.
cells, macrophages, and excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated Some medicinal plants reported to be effective in the in the pathogenesis of the disease . The use of treatment of UC include Azadirachta indica , medicinal plants or their active components is Moringa olifera Lam. , Ginko biloba , Hibiscus rosa becoming an increasingly attractive approach for the sinensis Linn and Curcuma longa . Some traditional treatment of various inflammatory disorders among Chinese medicines aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrums enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis have also been used .
The Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 1 Issue 2 December 2013 Coriandrum sativum L. of family Umbelliferae, a obtained from Mahavir Enterprises, Hyderabad, glabrous aromatic, herbaceous annual plant is well India. They were maintained at (24±1 °C), with known for its use as an antioxidant. Essential oil, relative humidity of 45-55% and 12:12 dark/light flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated cycle. The animals were acclimatized for a period of from different parts of C.sativum . It is a soft, one week. Commercial pellet diet and water were hairless plant growing up to 50cm in height and is provided ad libitum. The experiments were carried native to Southwestern Asia and North Africa. All out according to the guidelines of the committee for parts of the plant are edible but the fresh leaves and the purpose of control and supervision of experiments the dried seeds are the most eaten parts of the plant . on animals (CPCSEA), New Delhi, India and Coriander seed is a popular spice and finely ground approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical seed is a major ingredient of curry powder. The seeds Committee (IAEC).
are mainly responsible for the medicinal use of 2.2. Plant material collection and preparation of coriander and have been used as a drug for indigestion, against worms, rheumatism and pain in the joints . C.sativum is reported to have a very Dry seeds of C.sativum were purchased locally and effective anti-oxidant activity profile showing 2, 2- authenticated from Department of Pharmacognosy, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical Priyadarshini College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, scavenging activity, lipooxygenase inhibition, and Hyderabad. Seeds were dried and made into fine phospholidpid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating powder. The powdered material (100g) was first activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, defatted with petroleum ether (60-80 ºC) using superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and Soxhlet apparatus. The marc was dried and again antilipid peroxidation activities. extracted using ethanol for 24h. The extract was then collected and air dried to obtain the product (4.5% Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of w/w). Appropriate concentrations of the extract were constituents such as flavanoids (quercetin 3- made using distilled water and polyethylene glycol glucoronide) , linalool, camphor, geranylacetate, (PEG) (1:1) as vehicle.
coriandrones . Caffeic acid, protocatechinic acid, 2.3. Preliminary phytochemical screening and glycitin were characterized as major The preliminary phytochemical screening of polyphenolics of coriander . It has also been reported ethanolic extract was tested for the presence of to exhibit several other pharmacological effects such flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and as antioxidant activity , anti-diabetic , anti- mutagenic , anthelmenthic , sedative-hypnotic , 2.4. Standard drug anticonvulsant , diuretic , cholesterol lowering , protective role against lead toxicity Prednisolone was obtained as a gift sample from activity , anti-feeding , anticancer , anxiolytic , Bafna Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (Chennai) and all other hepatoprotective , anti-protozoal , anti-ulcer , chemicals used were purchased locally.
post-coital anti-fertility and heavy metal 2.5. Induction of colitis detoxification activities .
Rats were fasted for 24 h. 2ml of 4% acetic acid was Several models of experimental colitis resembling administered into the rectum of rats using 3mm UC have been reported previously. The most widely diameter catheter at a distance of 8cms into colon for used models are induced by administering toxic 30s. After 30s acetic acid was withdrawn followed by chemicals such as dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) , flushing of colon using 0.9% saline .
trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and acetic acid . In this a reproducible model of UC in male 2.6. Treatment protocol Wistar rats was developed by intrarectal The animals were randomly divided into following administration of 2ml acetic acid (4% v/v). The role experimental groups with 5 animals in each group.
of C.sativum in the possible modulation of colon inflammation has not been verified. This prompted us Group 1 - Vehicle treated animals: received 1ml to study the potential effects of ethanolic extract of of distilled water and PEG (1:1) for 11days.
seeds of C.sativum extract on experimental acetic Group 2 - Acetic acid control animals: received acid-induced colitis in rats. 2ml of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution, once Group 3 - Prednisolone treated animals: received 2.1. Animals Prednisolone (2mg/kg, p.o.) for 3days and acetic Healthy adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were acid (2ml of 4% v/v solution, once intrarectally). The Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 1 Issue 2 December 2013 Prednisolone and acetic acid treatment was unit of SOD activity (mg/wet tissue) . started on the same day.
2.7.3.3. Catalase activity (CAT) Group 4 – Drug treated animals: Pre-treated with The reaction mixture consisted of 2ml of phosphate C.sativum (100mg/kg, p.o.) for 7days and 2ml of buffer (pH 7.0), 0.95ml of hydrogen peroxide 4% acetic acid solution intra rectally on 8 day. (0.019M) and 0.05ml of supernatant in a final Drug treatment was continued till 11 day.
volume of 3ml.Absorbance was recorded at 240nm Group 5 - Drug treated animals: Pre-treated with every 10sec for 1min. One unit of CAT was defined as C.sativum (300mg/kg. p.o.) for 7days and 2ml of the amount of enzyme required to decompose 1µmol 4%acetic acid solution intrarectally on 8th day. of peroxide per min at 25 ° C .The results were Drug treatment was continued till 11 day.
expressed as units of CAT U/g of wet tissue .
On the 11 day animals were sacrificed and colons 2.7.3.4. Reduced Glutathione (GSH) were collected for morphological and biochemical 1ml of homogenate is added to 1ml of 10% TCA and assays. Portions of colonic specimens were kept in centrifuged.1ml of supernatant is treated with 0.5ml 10% formalin solution for histopathological studies.
of Ellman's reagent (19.8 mg of 5,5'-dithiobisnitro 2.7. Assessment of colonic damage benzoic acid (DTNB) in 100ml of 1% sodium citrate) and 3ml of phosphate buffer (pH-8). The color 2.7.1. Macroscopic scoring: The colon was excised developed was measured at 412nm .
and opened longitudinally, rinsed with ice-cold normal saline and colonic damage was evaluated 2.7.3.5. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) according to scale ranging from 0 to 4 as follows : In brief, 0.1ml of homogenate (Tris-HCl buffer, ph 0 - Normal appearance; 1 - Mucosal erythema only; 2 7.5) was treated with 2ml of (1:1:1) TBA-TCA-HCl - Mild edema, slight bleeding or small erosions reagent (Thiobarbituric acid 0.37%, 0.25N HCl and 15% TCA) and placed in water bath for 15 min, 3 - Moderate edema, bleeding, ulcers; 4 - Severe cooled and centrifuged at room temperature for 10 ulcerations, erosions, edema and tissue necrosis min at 1000 rpm. The absorbance of clear supernatant 2.7.2. Colon weight/length ratio (g/cm): After was measured against reference blank at 535nm .
animals were sacrificed colon was removed, gently 2.7.3.6. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) flushed with ice-cold normal saline placed on ice cold plate, cleaned of fat and mesentery and blotted on 0.1ml of homogenate (Tris Hcl buffer, pH 7.5) was filter paper to dry lightly. Each colon was weighed treated with equal volume of potassium phosphate and its length was measured . It was used as a buffer (pH 7.5) and was centrifuged at room parameter to assess the degree of colon edema which temperature for 10 min at 10000 rpm. The supernatant reflected the severity of colitis.
was treated with 0.5% tetramethylbenzidine. This mixture was oxidized by MPO in presence of 2.7.3. Estimation of colonic mucosal antioxidants hydrogen peroxide and absorbance was measured at (SOD, CAT, GSH, LPO) and pro-inflammatory marker –MPO) 2.7.4. Histopathological examination 2.7.3.1. Preparation of tissue homogenate The colonic tissues were fixed in 10% formalin. The The colon tissue was washed with ice-cold saline and specimens were then processed for standard homogenized with 0.1M tris buffer (pH 7.5) using procedure and were embedded in paraffin wax in Remi homogenizer to give 10% homogenate. The Swiss roll model to expose the lesional and normal homogenate was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 areas of colon tissue. The blocks were then sectioned min and supernatant was used for estimation of according to hematoxylin and eosin method . Five- antioxidant enzyme levels.
micrometer thick histological sections were obtained 2.7.3.2. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) from the paraffin blocks. The sections were examined under the light microscope and photographs were The assay of SOD was based on ability of SOD to taken under 40X. inhibit spontaneous oxidation of adrenaline to adrenochrome. 0.05ml supernatant was added to 2.8. Statistical analysis 2.0ml of carbonate buffer and 0.5ml of 0.01 Mm All data were expressed as the mean ± SEM. For EDTA solutions. The reaction was initiated by statistical analysis of the data, group means were addition of 0.5ml of epinephrine and autoxidation of compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) adrenaline to adrenochrome was measured at 480nm. followed by Dunnett's test P<0.05 was considered The change in absorbance for every minute was measured against blank. The results are expressed as The Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 1 Issue 2 December 2013 dependent manner as shown (Table I). Acetic acid-induced colitis produced diarrhoea in all the animals 3.1. Preliminary phytochemical screening whereas none of the animals in the vehicle treated The ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. was group had diarrhoea. Administration of C.sativum found to contain flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, (100, 300mg/kg) reduced the frequency of diarrhoea tannins and saponins.
in experimental colitis (data not shown).
3.2. Macroscopic results 3.3. Effect of colonic SOD activity The acetic acid treatment induced severe There was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in colonic macroscopic inflammation in the colon after rectal SOD activity in rats given acetic acid treatment only administration as assessed by the colonic damage as compared to vehicle treated group. Pretreatment of score (Table I). Treatment with Prednisolone significantly reduced the severity of the tissue rats with C.sativum (at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg) damage. C.sativum (100, 300mg/kg) significantly orally caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in reduced the intensity of inflammation in a dose- colitis-induced reduction of SOD activity, (Table II). Table 1 Effect of C.sativum (100 and 300mg/kg) on colon weight to length ratio (g/cm) and macroscopic
scoring of rats in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (n=5) (Mean±SEM).
Treatment
Macroscopic Colon weight :
Vehicle (1ml/kg) 0.0±0.00 control (2ml of 4% v/v)Prednisolone (2mg/kg)C.sativum (100mg/kg)C.sativum All data analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by significantly (P<0.05) decreased after induction of Dunnet's test. P<0.05 as compared to vehicle treated colitis as compared to vehicle treated group. group, P<0.05 as compared to acetic acid control Treatment with Prednisolone (2mg/kg) or C.sativum (100 & 300mg/kg) showed a significant increase in the GSH levels. The increase was significantly (0-normal appearance; 1- mucosal erythema only; 2- mild oedema, slight bleeding or small erosions; 3- (P<0.05) higher with C.sativum at a dose of moderate oedema, bleeding, ulcers; 4-severe ulcerations, erosions, oedema and tissue necrosis) 3.6. Effect of colonic lipid peroxidation 3.4. Effect of colonic Catalase activity Tissue LPO activity showed a statistically significant Tissue catalase levels decreased significantly (P<0.05) increase in acetic acid treated group as (P<0.05) following intrarectal administration of compared to the vehicle treated group. Treatment acetic acid compared to vehicle treated group. with Prednisolone (2mg/kg, p.o.) and C.sativum (100 Pretreatment of rats with C.sativum (300 mg/kg) and 300mg/kg) significantly reduced colonic LPO orally caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in activity (Table II).
catalase activity as compared with acetic acid control 3.7. Effect on colonic myeloperoxidase group. On the other hand the effect of C.sativum (100mg/kg) was similar to Prednisolone control Tissue MPO activity showed a significant (P<0.05) (2mg/kg) (Table II).
increase in acetic acid treated group as compared to the vehicle treated group. Treatment with C.sativum 3.5. Effect of colonic GSH levels (100 and 300mg/kg) significantly reduced colonic Table II illustrates that tissue GSH levels was MPO activity (Table II).
The Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 1 Issue 2 December 2013 Table 2 Effect of C.sativum (100 and 300mg/kg) on colon weight to length ratio (g/cm) and macroscopic
scoring of rats in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis (n=5) (Mean±SEM).

Treatment
Reduced GSH
MPO (U/mg of
(U/mg of wet
(U/mg of wet
(ìg GSH/mg of (n moles/ mg of wet tissue)
wet tissue)
wet tissue)
(2mg/kg)C.sativum (100mg/kg)C.sativum All data analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Dunnet's test. *P<0.05 as compared to vehicle treated group, #P<0.05 as compared to acetic acid group.
3.8. Histopathological examination mucosal intestinal flora . The inflammatory response Histopathological examination (40X) of colon tissue initiated by acetic acid includes activation of of rats treated with acetic acid (4%) showed cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways significant cell inflammation with loss of mucosa The most disabling feature of UC, is the episodic (30%), whereas C. sativum (100mg/kg) showed acute exacerbation. During these periods, there is an scattered round cell collection in mucosa and association between acute inflammation (presence of submucosa, and C. sativum (300mg/kg) showed near neutrophils), tissue damage and diarrhoea. to normal architecture (Figure 1) Administration of acetic acid significantly increased DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
colon weight and incidence of diarrhoea which is in agreement with earlier reports . Pre-treatment with The use of plants with herbal healing properties is as ethanolic extract of seeds of C.sativum (100 and old as mankind as they have been used since antiquity 300mg/kg) exhibited a decrease in the colon weight in treating various diseases of man. The present study and incidence of diarrhoea.
evaluated the protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Coriandrum sativum in acetic acid-induced The gross morphological lesions characterized by UC in male Wistar rats. ulcer and necrotic area of various sizes, were healed depicting protection from the corrosive effect of Acetic acid induced colitis model is similar to human acetic acid by ethanolic extract of seeds of C.sativum. ulcerative colitis in terms of histopathological Oxidative stress also has been implicated in the features. It affects the distal colon portion and pathogenesis of UC in experimental animals . induces non-transmural inflammation, massive Excess production of reactive oxygen metabolites necrosis of mucosal and sub-mucosal layers, mucosal e.g., superoxide, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen edema, neutrophil infiltration of the mucosa and sub- peroxide, hypochlorous acid and oxidant derivatives mucosal ulceration. The protonated form of the acid are detected in inflamed mucosa and may be liberates protons within the intracellular space and causes massive intracellular acidification resulting in pathogenic in IBD . Intestinal mucosal damage in massive epithelial damage. Inflammation is the the IBD is related to both increased free radical pathogenesis of IBD, and several pathways are production and a low concentration of endogenous associated with inflammatory response in IBD due to antioxidant defense . The Journal of Integrated Health Sciences Vol 1 Issue 2 December 2013 Figure 1 Photomicrographs of histopathological examination (40X) of colon tissue. Section A) Control group treated with vehicle shows normal architecture, section B) group treated with acetic acid (4% v/v) shows significant cell inflammation, loss of mucosa (30%), section C) group treated with Prednisolone (2mg/kg) shows scattered round cell collection in mucosa and submucosa, section D) group treated with C.sativum extract (100mg/kg) shows loss of mucosa (10%), section E) group treated with C.sativum extract (300mg/kg) shows near to normal architecture.
We estimated SOD, Catalase, GSH, and LPO levels in histopathological studies. Thus in conclusion, addition to morphological changes in the colonic ethanolic extract of C.sativum (100 and 300mg/kg) tissue as an index to assess the severity of oxidative has ameliorated the effects of acetic acid in Wistar rats damage. Pretreatment with C.sativum (100mg/kg and by way of normalizing the damaged tissue, resetting 300mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited significant (P<0.05) the antioxidant levels and reversing the reversal of all the above biochemical parameters and histopathological changes induced by dose reversed the histopathological changes induced by dependent acetic acid.
acetic acid treatment. The colonic MPO activity, an index of neutrophil activation and The authors acknowledge the technical assistance inflammation was increased in acetic acid-treated provided by Dr.P.Uday kumar, Scientist E (Deputy animals. Activated neutrophils pass out of the Director) & HOD, Pathology Division, NIN (ICMR), circulation and enter the inflamed mucosa and Tarnaka, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India for submucosa of the large intestine during acute histopathology study and its critical evaluation.
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Multiple daily administrations of low-dosesublingual immunotherapy in allergicrhinoconjunctivitisVasco Bordignon, MD,* and Samuele E. Burastero, MD† Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an efficacious treatment for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.Objective: To investigate whether the number of daily administrations of SLIT can affect its efficacy.Methods: In an open study, 64 patients with allergic seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis to grass or birch pollens were assigned to

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AUS KLINISCHER UND Petra Vetter Kontakt e-mail: peve1@gmx.de Inhalt Seite 2. Zur Begrifflichkeit.3 3. Probleme der diagnostischen Abklärung.4 3.1. Erklärungsansätze.4 3.2. Methoden.5 3.4. Conners Skala.5 4. Therapeutische Ansätze.6 4.1. Pädagogische Maßnahmen.6 4.2. Psychotherapien.6 4.3. Medikamentöse Behandlung.6